Editors' Note
The Palestinian-Israeli conflict has influenced not only the parties directly concerned, but also observers from outside the region who are drawn into the debate and into research on the subject. Both the complexity and the sheer quantity of books written on it from all points of view tend to affect the compilation of bibliographies on the subject. Professor Velloso's bibliography deals, as he notes, with the question of Palestine and relies for the most part on Palestinian and general sources, along with some Israeli ones. Though it cannot claim to present a comprehensive bibliography of the conflict, we consider that his work can serve as a useful tool for those studying the subject.

From Herzl (1896) to Arafat (1995): Thousands of Publications

In 1896, Theodor Herzl published Der Judenstaat (The State of the Jews). Almost one hundred years later, in 1995, the Palestinian National Authority published Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return. Herzl's comrades greeted his book with laughter. However, he had no doubts about the success of his plan: "In five years, perhaps, and certainly in fifty, everyone will perceive it...." He did not foresee the publication of the Palestinian book. Its authors never thought the day would come when they would have to publish a book about their right to live in their own homeland. No laughter greeted this book, although there are still doubts about the future of the Palestinian state. In the century that separates these two works, the Palestinian conflict took - is still taking - place.
One outcome, of course not the most important, is the thousands of publications on the conflict: on the one hand, documents, agreements, resolutions, statements; on the other, books, papers and research work. It is probably an exaggeration to say that everything has already been written about it, but the number and variety of works, as the bibliography shows, are endless. In every discipline of the arts and sciences there are authors dealing with the conflict, either as a whole or focusing on some aspect of it. Just think of the biographies of its protagonists, psychological studies of the populations in the area, economic forecasts of every Middle Eastern nation, political and military analyses (the nuclear threat included), poems and novels about Jewish and Palestinian peoples and their experiences, moral considerations about the events, the role of humor in the conflict ... Politicians (e.g., Ghandi), philosophers and intellectuals (e.g., Buber, Aaron, Chomsky) and historians (e.g., Toffler) have written about the Palestinian conflict. Nobody has missed the opportunity to contribute. Witness Wolinetz's doctoral thesis of 1975 (Ann Arbor, Michigan) on "Arab Philatelic Propaganda against the State of Israe1." Every point of view and interpretation of the conflict have been examined. Yet, the only thing about its development that can be foreseen for certain is that new documents, papers and books will appear, as well as more films and electronic pages.
An attempt at a bibliographical guide to the question of Palestine is presented here. It has to be an impossible mission to read everything on the subject and it is not easy to keep track of new material. At the same time, scores of documents remain unavailable, either because archives are still closed to researchers, or because they are kept secret. Some publications are no longer interesting because they repeat what has been written earlier. This review will be mainly historical and political rather than specialized. The aim is to allow the reader to move along the main lines related to the conflict.
Journals, papers and documents are considered below, but the focus will be mainly on books. The following list of journals represents a comprehensive and important source of information: The Arab Review; Arab Studies Quarterly; British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies; Challenge; Israel and Palestine Political Report; The Jerusalem Report; Journal of International Affairs; Journal of Palestine Studies; The Middle East; Middle East Affairs Journal; Middle East International; Middle East Journal; Middle East Policy; Middle East Quarterly; Middle East Report; Middle Eastern Studies; News from Within; Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture; Palestine Report and; Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. If a publication has not been included in this review, it is not because of hostility to its author or disagreement with its content. It is probable that, due to the sheer volume of writings, some may be missing, especially on the Israeli side. Additionally, if an author has published several works dealing with the same subject, or related issues, usually only one is presented for reasons of economy. So, to the only work of Martin Buber included in the third part of this bibliography, two more can be added: Israel and Palestine: The History of an Idea (London: The East and West Library, 1952) and Israel and the World (New York: Schocken Books, 1963). The same is true of other authors and organizations.

Literature vs. Reality

Many doubts exist concerning the impact this enormous output of printed material has on the solution to this non-ending conflict. As Waart, P. writes in his Dynamics of Self-Determination in Palestine (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994, pp. xiii-xiv): "The abundance of scholarly books and articles on the Israeli¬-Palestinian conflict seems to be inversely proportionate to their impact on a just and adequate solution. It seems like a Sisyphean labor to devote another book to the topic."
The best example of the gap between what is written and what actually happens are the publications proceeding from a group of international organizations. What the UN and its subsidiary agencies (UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNRWA and UNSCOP, to name a few) publish fills many thick volumes. Year after year, since the UN General Assembly Resolution on the Partition of Palestine (1947), the Conciliation, Status of Jerusalem and Right to Return (1948), the Permanent International Regime for Jerusalem (1949), the Security Council resolutions on principles of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East (1967, 1973), and some other more recent resolutions ¬what is published remains on paper.
Space does not permit the mention of all the international organizations that have published documents on the Palestinian conflict. Some of the more noteworthy publications are presented here: The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, Report on Palestine to the General Assembly (New York: Somerset Books, 1947); United Nations, The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem, 2 vols. (New York: UN, 1978); United Nations, Question of Palestine: Legal Aspects (New York: UN, 1992); United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees, UNRWA: A Brief History, 1950-1982 (Vienna: UNRWA, 1983); United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees, Guide to UNRWA (Vienna: UNRWA, 1995); UNESCO, Palestine: Priority Projects for Educational Development (Paris: UNESCO, 1991); UNICEF, The Situation of Palestinian Children in the West Bank and Gaza Strip Oerusalem: UNICEF, 1992); World Bank, Developing the Occupied Territories:
An Investment in Peace, 6 vols. (Washington, D.C: WB, 1993); World Bank, The West Bank and Gaza: The Next Two Years and Beyond (Washington, D.C: WB, 1994).
Key international documents after 1948 are the UN Security Council resolutions (i.e., 242, 252, 253, 254, 267, 298, 338, 425) and the UN General Assembly resolutions (i.e., 2253, 2254). Still on the same subject, the work by Moore J., published by Princeton University in 1974 and 1991 in four volumes, is a sound source of information: The Arab-Israeli Conflict (1: Readings; 2: Readings; 3: Documents; 4: The Difficult Search for Peace (1975-1998). Boudreault, J. published several volumes on UN resolutions: United Nations Resolutions on Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Washington, D.C. Institute for Palestine Studies, 1993). Between 1988 and 1993, the Institute for Palestine Studies published United Nations Resolutions on Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1991 (4 vols., Washington, D.C.: IPS). Lapidoth, R. and Moshe, H. published in 1992 The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Selected Documents (London: Nijhoff); and in the same year Lukacs, Y. edited The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Documentary Record 1967-1990 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). In 1994, Lustick, I. edited Arab-Israeli Relations: A Collection of Contending Perspectives and Recent Research, 10 vols. (Hamden: Garland) and, finally, in 1995, Laqueur, W. and Rubin, R. edited the fifth edition of The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict (New York: Penguin Books).
Some of the books mentioned above also include pre-1948 documents. During this period attention has to be paid to Ottoman and British laws (during and after. the First World War), the League of Nations Mandate to Britain, the international conferences on the future of to-be-independent nations, the correspondence between Jewish and Arab leaders and between these and British and French leaders (both open and secret), the Balfour Declaration of 1917 on the Jewish homeland in Palestine, statements and proceedings of Jewish and Arab conferences, reports by several British and United States Commissions of Inquiry sent to Palestine, and Second World War documents related to Palestine. A review of materials written in the last years of the 19th century and the first third of the 20th century would have to include, among others, the following: Herzl's diaries, Weizman-Faisal and Abdallah-McMahon correspondence, the Sykes-Picot accords, the Paris Peace Conference proceedings, the San Remo Conference proceedings, the Zionist Congress and the Arab High Committee proceedings, the British reports on the Middle East, the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry report and the UNSCOP report.
Some other documents, although not directly related to the conflict, have an important bearing on it: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War; the Hague Regulations; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; United Nations Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary; Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The documents of the two parties in the conflict have to be added to the previous lists. The two basic are: The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (May 14, 1948) and The Declaration of Palestinian Independence (November 15, 1988). Also, both parties have in recent years signed The Declaration of Principles (September 13, 1993), followed by other accords: Taba, Cairo and Hebron, among others. Additionally, some countries, individually, and some specialized international organizations have made public their positions concerning the conflict. That is the case of the United States: Boudreault, J. et al. (eds.), U.S. Official Statements Regarding UN Resolution 242 (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992); Great Britain: Central Office of Information Reference Services, Britain and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (London: HMSO, 1993); the Arab League, and the European Parliament: see, for example, Gorce, P., "Europe and the Arab-¬Israeli Conflict: A Survey," Journal of Palestine Studies (26:3, 1997, pp. 5-16). Apart from this, between 1976 and 1982, Medzini, M. collected documents on Israeli foreign relations: Israel's Foreign Relations: Selected Documents, 1947-1974 (vols. 1 & 2), 1974-1977 (vol. 3), 1977-1979 (vols. 4 & 5) (Jerusalem: Ministry of Foreign Affairs).
Documents of nongovernmental organizations may be useful as well. There are numerous reports by the Israeli Human Rights Organization, B'Tselem. Amnesty International has published several reports on human rights in the area; for example, Israel and the Occupied Territories Including the Areas under the Jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority and Trial at Midnight: Secret, Summary, Unfair Trials in Gaza, both in 1995. A directory of European NGOs may help to find information on specific areas: Network of European NCOs in the Occupied Territories (1992), Directory of European Nongovernmental Support to the Occupied Palestinian Territories (Jerusalem: Medical Aid for Palestinians). Publications disseminated by certain institutes should also be taken into account: the Jerusalem Media and Communication Center, Israeli Military Orders in the Occupied Palestinian West Bank 1967-1992, 2nd ed. Gerusalem: JMCC, 1995). The JMCC has also published material on the Declaration of Principles and the Draft of the Basic Law for the National Authority. Further data can be obtained from other centers and committees: Center for Policy Analysis on Palestine, Palestinian Refugees: Their Problem and Future (Washington, D.C.: CPAP, 1994), and from lobbies: Israel National Section of International Commission of Jurists, The Rule of Law in the Areas Administered by Israel (Tel Aviv: LN.S.LC.J., 1981).

Early Days

The 1930s, particularly between 1936 and 1939, are known as the years of the Arab Revolt, something akin to the Intifida which took place in the occupied territories in the late 1980s. Violence then took different forms. Some authors underline the violence practiced by the Jewish side, and some the violence practiced by the Palestinian side. Thousands paid with their lives in attacks and counterattacks, which deteriorated into the 1948 war. (It should be remembered that, while many people were killing and being killed, a few formed commissions, traveled, talked, designed plans and engaged in international politics thousands of miles away from Palestine.)
In The Middle East, 1914-1979 (London: Edward, Arnold, 1980), Fraser, T. devotes attention to the promises Great Britain made simultaneously to Jews and Arabs, her contempt for the colonized peoples and the escalation of the Palestinian problem. An interesting study is Greenstein's R. comparative study of 1995, Genealogies of Conflict: Class, Identity, and State in Palestine/Israel and South Africa (Hanover: University Press of South England). Greenstein focuses on the responsibility of each side in the conflict. He quotes an article by Epstein that appeared in 1907 in the Jewish magazine Ha-Shiloah, "The Hidden Question." Talking about land purchases, Epstein concedes: "Unless we want to deceive ourselves deliberately, we have to admit that we have thrown poor people out of their miserable lodgings and taken away their sustenance"(p. 39); "Arab landowners who sold these properties were more interested in their own benefit than the benefit of the peasants who worked the lands. Moreover, class and clan divisions amongst Arabs made a difficult situation even worse: The factionalism that plagued Palestinian-Arab politics during the revolt continued unabated in the last decade of the mandate"(p. 229).
In 1984, Hirst, D. published the second edition of one of the most celebrated books on the conflict: The Gun and the Olive Branch: The Roots of Violence in the Middle East (London: Faber & Faber). The title is a reference to Arafat's speech before the UN General Assembly on November 13, 1974, where he offered both to the world, hoping the olive branch would be chosen. Hirst reflects on earlier sometimes overt, sometimes covert acts by both sides that led to violence. He quotes Herzl: "Try to spirit the penniless population across the border by procuring employment for it in the transit countries, while denying it any employment in our own country. The property-owners will come over to our side. Both the process of expropriation and the removal of the poor must be carried out discreetly and circumspectly. Let the owners of immovable property believe that they are cheating us, selling us things for more than they are worth. But we are not going to sell them anything back" (p. 18). Those sales were publicly condemned amongst Arabs, but, he goes on to say, "And here is the real measure of the Palestinian leadership - there was no real social ostracism, let alone any condign punishment" (p. 79). Furthermore, Palestinian society suffered from deep internal divisions: "Warlordism flourished, but worse still was the debilitating effect of inherited clan rivalries, of old blood-feuds mixed up with new and half-understood political controversies. These could not only set village against village, but could divide a single one upon itself" (p. 94).
Israeli, R. in his Palestinians between Israel and Jordan: Squaring the Triangle (New York: Praeger, 1991), produces data supporting the Jordanian option. "This option considers Jordan as a de facto Palestinian state, hence there is no need for another de jure Palestinian state west of the Jordan river.
The labyrinth of colonial borders, the letters and promises from the colonial powers to the Jewish and Palestinian leaders in exchange for support, the secret accords between powers, and the debates on jurisdiction, alliances and commitments, do not make any clearer at all a scenario that could be viewed as a Monopoly game." the mistakes and shortcomings of the Arab leaders then, but, at the same time, stresses the legitimacy of their rights which were submitted to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Arab leaders do not compare with the resourceful Jewish leadership. Those "leaders were insufficiently aware of the dynamics and subtleties of international diplomacy and ignorant of how to present their case effectively. In fact, they were unable to realize that their conflict with Zionist political aspirations would be greatly determined by events and developments far removed from Palestine ... they [did not] correctly evaluate the determination and ability of the Zionists to achieve their own goals ...." (p. 15). Another study on Jordan and the secret agreements between Abdallah and the Zionists, according to which he was meant to recognize the Jewish state and, in return, keep a big portion of the proposed Palestinian state in the Partition Resolution, is Jordan in the Middle East: The Making of a Pivotal State 1948-1988, edited by Nevo, J. and Pappe, I. (Essex: Frank Cass, 1994). Kolatt, I. contributed a chapter, "The Zionist Movement and the Arabs" to the book edited by Reinharz, J. and Shapira, A.: Essential Papers on Zionism (New York: New York University Press, 1996). In it he discusses one of the currents of Zionism supporting Jewish-Arab cooperation (itself one of the solutions to the Jewish question). This current was in the minority, while the Zionist mainstream policy led to the establishment of the State of Israel. Talking about the group Bdt Shalom, Kolatt writes that it "was working towards the establishment of a binational state in Palestine [and] also favored the development of a common Jewish-Arab society" (p. 628). Martin Buber, Judah Magnes and Moshe Smilansky, who in 1949 published Palestine: A Binational State (New York: The Thud) and others of their contemporaries, such as Rutenberg, Frumkin, Novomeysky and Kalvarisky, founded in the 1930s and 1940s associations like Kedma and Mizraha (Society for the Progress of Jewish-Arab Relations) and Thud (Union), which "stands for the union of Jews and Arabs in a Binational Palestine with neighboring countries." (Buber, et. al., p. 7).
Three other books on the conflict during that period are: Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict by Smith, C. (Hampshire: MacMillan Education, 1988); Tessler, M., A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994) and Tuma, E., Peacemaking and the Immoral War: Arabs and Jews in the Middle East (New York: Harper & Row, 1972). In Smith's book, he shows Great Britain's imperialist and unscrupulous policies of Great Britain in Palestine, "until Britain's imperial position seemed threatened by the resentment of other Arab countries at the onset of World War II. These officials then issued a White Paper in 1939 that essentially repudiated the Balfour Declaration and seemed to ensure Arab domination of a future Palestinian state" (p. 69). Tessler, on the other hand, goes back to the 13th century B.C. to demonstrate Jewish presence in Palestine. At the same time, he highlights the good intentions and the opportunities of cooperation that existed between the two peoples of the area during the first two decades of the 20th century. Tuma prefers to reflect over the question: "Why, then, was Palestine chosen as the target area for the creation of a Jewish national home? Simply put, it was chosen because it seemed expedient; it looked like easy prey, and it relieved the Western powers of any obligations to open their own gates for Jewish immigration. Furthermore, they found in the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine a convenient way of guarding and promoting their own interests in Asia and the Middle East" (p. 13).
The following works complete this part dealing with the beginning of the conflict: George Antonius's classic, The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement (New York: Capricorn Books, 1965); Arab Higher Committee, A Memorandum Submitted to the Royal Commission (Jerusalem: A.H.C., 1937); Arab Office, The Future of Palestine (London: A.O., 1947); Khalidi, R., Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997); and two books by Vital, D., The Origins of Zionism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975) and Zionism: The Formative Years & The Crucial Phase (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987).

Five Wars in Fifty Years: When Will the Next One Be?

With one war after another - 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973 and 1982 - plus a handful of lesser military actions; for example, the battle between the Israel Defense Forces and the Palestinian Authority Police in 1996, it is no wonder that some authors have written the history of Palestine in military terms. It is to be noted that the number of Palestinian casualties is higher than that of Jews, and this imbalance is a constant in the armed confrontations that have been taking place between the two sides. Threats of new confrontations are still very much alive.
Naturally, some authors mentioned in the above section deal in their works with events that took place after 1948, so others are quoted below. In Blood Brothers (Eastbourne: Kingsway Publications, 1990), Chakour, E. and Hazard, D. recreate from the point of view of the defeated the feelings about war, dispossession, exile, the reaction to Jewish immigration to Palestine, the Partition Plan, the Holocaust and the policies of the major powers at that time.
Noam Chomsky has written extensively about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Two works are mentioned here, although they do not focus primarily on military aspects: The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians (Boston: South End Press, 1983) and World Orders Old and New (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994). Chomsky concentrates on the moral scope of acts of aggression and presents evidence that highlights the responsibilities of aggressors and their supporters. Many an interesting quotation could be cited from his books. One such quotation is from Nahum Goldmann, president of the World Zionist Organization between 1956 and 1968. In October 1981, Goldmann wrote: "We will have to understand that Jewish suffering during the Holocaust no longer will serve as a protection, and we certainly must refrain from using the argument of the Holocaust to justify whatever we may do. To use the Holocaust as an excuse for the bombing of Lebanon, for instance, as Menachem Begin does, is a kind of hillul hashem (sacrilege), a banalization of the sacred tragedy of the Shoah (Holocaust), which must not be misused to justify politically doubtful and morally indefensible policies" (The Fateful Triangle, p. 98).
Noam Chomsky's harsh criticism does not only target Israel and her best ally, the United States, but also the Palestinians and Arabs involved in the conflict. Reflecting on the diverse forms of Palestinian resistance to the Balfour Declaration, he writes: "They repeatedly resorted to terrorist violence against Jews. The most extreme case was in late August 1929, when 133 Jews were massacred. The 'most ghastly incident' was in Hebron, where 60 Jews were killed, most of them from an old Jewish community, largely anti-Zionist" (Ibid., p. 90).
Some works confine themselves mainly to the military and politico-military aspects of the conflict. One recent example is Cordesman's A. Perilous Prospects: The Peace Process and the Arab-Israeli Military Balance (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996). Once the military expenses and the quality of army training is considered on both sides, the author presents several scenarios and their probable outcomes. The very short list of works devoted to this subject given below is but an indication of the whole output: Barker, A., Arab-Israeli Wars (New York: Hippocrene, 1980); Herzog, c., The Arab-Israeli Wars (New York: Vintage Books, 1984); Ovendale, R., The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Wars (London: Longman, 1992); Sayigh, Y., Arab Military Industry: Capability, Performance and Impact (London: Centre for Arab Unity Studies, 1992); Evron, Y., Israel's Nuclear Dilemma (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994); Alexander, E., The Jewish Wars: Reflections by One of the Belligerents (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996).
Although Simcha Flapan, a follower of Martin Buber; does not analyze the conflict from the military point of view, his book The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987) is included here because of his interesting comments about Israel's "need" to fight her enemies in order to survive as a nation. Talking about the 1948 war, he challenges the version that says that "in Ben-Gurion's view, the military option, if the most risky, was also the most promising" (pp. 47-48), and destroys the myth of Arab armed superiority. Equally interesting in his analysis of some other myths: the free (instead of forced) Palestinian exodus, the eagerness of Palestinians to go to war (instead of the contrary), warmongering infiltrators (instead of peasants coming back to their places in Israel in order to work their fields), and Israeli search for peace and a purely defensive attitude (instead of the Jewish policy of creating facts and resorting to violence). Neff, D. does not specialize in the military field, but takes the wars as the starting point of his analysis of Israeli policy towards her neighbors and her relationship with the United States. In his book Fallen Pillars: U.S. Policy towards Palestine and Israel since 1945 (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1995), he says, "The State Department had predicted such an intervention less than two weeks before the British withdrawal. An internal memorandum observed that 'the Jews will be the actual aggressors against the Arabs. However, the Jews will claim that they are merely defending the boundaries of a state which were traced by the U.N.'" (p. 65).
Close to military issues, although bearing specific characteristics, is the subject of the Israel-United States relationship. Again, many authors have dealt with the topic, so only a few of them will be listed. Some works dealing with international relations influencing the conflict are also included: Aaron, R., De Gaulle, Israel and the Jews (New York: Praeger, 1969); Cohen, A., Israel and the Arab World (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1970); Crosbie, S., A Tacit Alliance: France and Israel from Suez to the Six-Day War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974); Rubin, B., The Arab States and the Palestine Conflict (Syracuse: NY, Syracuse University Press, 1981); the roles of the United States, Great Britain, France and the former Soviet Union are discussed in Adams, J., The Unnatural Alliance: Israel and South Africa (London: Quartet Books, 1984); Hunter, F., Israeli Foreign Policy: South Africa and Central America (Boston: South End Press, 1987); Beinin, J., Was the Red Flag Flying There? Marxist Politics and the Arab-Israeli Conflict in Egypt and Israel, 1948-1965 (Berkeley: California University Press, 1990); Lenczowsky, G., American Presidents and the Middle East (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990); Hersh, S., The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy (New York: Random House, 1991); Quandt, W., Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Hollis, R. (ed.), The Soviets, Their Successors and the Middle East: Turning Point (Ipswich: Royal United Services Institute, 1993); Mansour, c., Beyond Alliance: Israel in United States Foreign Policy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994); Shleim, A., War and Peace in the Middle East: A Critique of American Policy (New York: Viking, 1994); Ma'oz, M., Syria and Israel: From War to Peacemaking (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Goldberg, J., Jewish Power: Inside the American Jewish Establishment (New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1996).
The following works complete this part: Cattan, H., The Palestine Question (London: Croom Helm, 1988); Ben-Gad, Y., Politics, Lies and Videotape: 3,000 Questions and Answers on the Mid-East Crisis (New York: Shapolsky, 1991); Beilin, Y., Israel: A Concise Political History (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1992); Gerner, D., One wnd, Two Peoples: The Conflict over Palestine, 2nd ed. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994); Benvenisti, M., Intimate Enemies: Jews and Arabs in a Shared wnd (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); Finkelstein, N., Image and Reality of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (London: Verso, 1995).

Palestinians, Jordanians, Refugees, Israelis, Arab Israelis, Jews and Arab Jews

In the Arab-Israeli conflict, a person can be an Arab Jew in Israel (e.g., a Jew who immigrated to Israel from Iraq in the 1950s); an Arab Israeli (a Palestinian who remained inside Israel in 1948, and many of whom like to say they are Palestinian Arabs in Israel); a Christian Arab living in the middle of Muslim Palestinians (if a Palestinian is a Christian in Gaza, where 99 percent of the population are Sunni Muslims); a refugee without nationality seeing himself or herself as Palestinian, in spite of living outside historic Palestine; a Jordanian born in the West Bank and a Jordanian born in Jordan whose families are Palestinian. The following authors talk about all these topics: the Jewish Diaspora; the Holocaust; Jewish identity; the lives of Jews and Palestinians, sided by side and facing each other; the Palestinian refugees and their relations with their Arab "brothers."
Amun, H., et. al., in Palestinian Arabs in Israel: Two Case Studies (London: Ithaca Press, 1977), discuss the infamous Koening Report (prepared by Koening, a civil servant at Israel's Ministry of Internal Affairs, leaked by the Hebrew daily Al ha-Mishmar on September 7, 1976), which shows the racist nature of its author through his proposals for a quiet expulsion of the Arab population of Israel. In his book Judaism: Myth, Legend, History, and Custom, from the Religious to the Secular (Montreal: Robert Davies Publishing, 1995), Arnold, A. quotes Yehuda Bauer's speech before the Humanist Secular World Conference (Brussels, 1988): "There are 'hair-splitting divisions' between religious and non-religious Jews. The split is such, however, that if we do not come to an understanding of ourselves that goes beyond religious definitions we are endangering the existence of the Jewish people" (p. 260). Bar-Tal, D., in Understanding the Psychological Bases of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (Tel Aviv: The International Center for Peace in the Middle East, 1991), states that "Israeli Jews and Palestinians deny the humanity of each other. Each categorizes the other group into extreme negative categories which are excluded from groups that are considered as acting within the limits of acceptable norms and/or values" (p. ii). Two other books deserve mention here: Fishman, H., The Challenge to Jewish Survival with Palestinians in Israel (London: Verso, 1993), and Harkabi, Y., Arab Attitudes to Israel (London: Valentine, 1972).
In Sharing the Promised Land: An Interwoven Tale of Israelis and Palestinians (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996), Hira, D. describes some of the most prominent features of both sides and the problems that accompany them. Another book is Landau's J. The Arab Minority in Israel, 1967-1991: Political Aspects (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993); and, finally, Leibowitz, Y., Judaism, Human Values, and the Jewish State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992). Leibowitz is one of the early consciences in Israel whose writings show his moral stature and far-sightedness. In the 1950s and 1960s he campaigned against Israel developing nuclear weapons and opposed the use of religion as a political tool which, in his view, was at the origin of violence. He foresaw that Israel's military victories and her territorial conquests, far from guaranteeing it peace and security, would increase the danger of both. He warned of the perils that moral, political and police corruption would pose to Israel as an occupying power, ruling by force a population against its will, and asked for the unconditional Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories.
Amos Oz, a well-known Israeli writer associated with the Peace Now movement, wrote, among others, In the Land of Israel (New York: Vmtage, 1984); The Slopes of Lebanon (London: Vintage, 1991); and Under This Blazing Light (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995). Don Peretz published in 1993 Palestinians, Refugees, and the Middle East Peace Process (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace). In it he reviews the history of Palestinian refugees under UNRWA's protection and underlines the main problems encountered in the host Arab countries. Rice, M. in False Inheritance: Israel in Palestine and the Search for a Solution (London: Kegan Paul, 1994), deals with the relationship between Oriental and Ashkenazi Jews. According to Rice, "The Oriental Jews, like the Palestinians, have equally little cause to love the Ashkenazim, individuals amongst whom they have generally been despised and frequently exploited" (p. 186). The same subject is treated by Massad, J. in "Zionism's Internal Others: Israel and the Oriental Jews" (Journal of Palestine Studies 25:4, 1996, pp. 53--68).
A sound study about the effects of the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian population was published by Roy, S. in 1995. Its title perfectly sums up these effects: The Caza Strip: The Political Economy of De-Development (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies). "Every Jew in Gaza was allowed 23 dunums, whereas each Arab inhabitant was given 0.27 dunums. There were 85 times as many people per dunum among Arabs than among Jews in 1993" (p. 176). This is a result of the policy of land confiscation. Edward Said, a Palestinian academic living and teaching in the United States, writes extensively on the conflict. Among his publications are: Israel: The Question of Palestine, 2nd ed. (London: Vintage, 1992); The Politics of Dispossession: The Struggle for Palestinian Self-Determination, 1969-1994 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1994); Peace and Its Discontents: Essays on Palestine in the Middle East Process (New York: Vintage, 1996)0 In his books, Professor Said is outspokenly critical of the Palestinian Authority, Arab leaders and, of course, Israel. For example, in Peace he says, "More than most people, Palestinians have been the victims of abuses by every government - Arab, and non-Arab - in whose jurisdiction they have lived. Why should they stand for similar practices from leaders who have neither been freely elected nor shown a spirit of self-sacrificing austerity? Why should hard-pressed Palestinians in refugee camps in Lebanon and Gaza accept corruption, Parisian shopping sprees, and continued bubbling among a handful of officials directed from Tunis? How long can Arafat simply assert his prerogative to be in exclusive control of building contracts, foreign aid, lucrative appointments? Are quick profit and a history of servile loyalty the only criteria for service?" (p 415).
The following works complete this part: Ghillan, M., How Israel Lost Its Soul (London, Pelican Books, 1973); Elon, A., The Israelis (New York: Penguin Books, 1981); Feuerlicht, R., The Fate of the Jews: A People Torn Between Israeli Power and Jewish Ethics (New York: Tunes Books, 1983); Marx, Eo, "Palestinian Refugee Camps in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip," Middle Eastern Studies (28:2, ppo 281-294, 1992); Rosenwasser, P., Voices from a Promised land (Williamantac: Curbstone, 1992); Heiberg, M. & Ovensen, Go, Palestinian Society in Gaza, the West Bank and Arab Jerusalem: A Survey of Living Conditions (Oslo: FAFO, 1993); Landau Jo, The Arab Minority in Israel, 1967-1991: Political Aspects (Oxford: Clarendon, 1993); Segev, T., The Seventh Million: The Israelis and the Holocaust (New York: Hill & Wang, 1993); Goldberg, D. & Drauz, Mo, Jewish Identity (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); also by Goldberg, D., To the Promised lAnd: A History of Zionist Thought (London: Penguin Books, 1996); Lerner, M., Jewish Renewal: A Path to Healing and Transformation (New York: Putman's, 1994); Sayigh, R., Too Many Enemies: the Palestinian Experience in Lebanon (London: Zed Books, 1994); Evron, B., Jewish State or Israeli Nation? (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995); Raheb, Mo, I Am a Palestinian Christian (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995); Schiff, Bo, Refugees unto the Third Generation: U.N. Aid to Palestinians (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1995); Neuberger, B. & Ben-Ami, I. (eds.), Democracy and National Security in Israel (Tel Aviv: The Open University of Israel, 1996); Abdel-Shafi, Ho, "The Jihad of the Self," The Palestine Report (2:50, 1997, pp. 8-9); Hirst, D., "Shameless in Gaza," Guardian Weekly (27 April, 1997).

From the Intifada to the Peace Process

The Palestinian uprising, which began in December 1987, is characterized by the new element of wide TV coverage. It was broadcast everywhere in the world by American and European TV crews. These crews filmed Israeli soldiers breaking the bones of Palestinian youths, as well as the handshake between the late Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the White House in 1993. Two kinds of writings stand out during these years: on the one hand, those by authors who apparently saw only the handshake; on the other, those by authors who seemed to see only the corpses. Authors already mentioned are not listed here.
Through Secret Channels by Mahmoud Abbas (Reading: Gamet Publishing, 1995), focuses on the peace negotiations. Hanan Ashrawi, an outstanding spokesperson for the Palestinian negotiating team and now minister in the Palestinian cabinet, published in 1995 This Side of Peace: A Personal Account (New York: Simon & Schuster). The criticism in her analysis is worlds away from that of Said, but her first-hand knowledge of the negotiations and the workings of the peace process are useful. Mustafa Barghouti published in 1996 "Post-Euphoria in Palestine," Journal of Palestine Studies (25:4, pp. 87-96), a title which makes redundant any further commentary on the situation in the territories. Mordechai Bar-On published in 1996 In Pursuit of Peace: A History of the Israeli Peace Movement (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press). This is a close review of a movement which cannot claim to have succeeded, but is a well-deserved tribute to Flapan, Eliav, Avineri, Grunzweig (killed by a bomb launched by an extreme Israeli right-wing militant against Israeli pro-peace demonstrators in 1983), Abie Nathan, Warchawsky and others. In the same vein (and aims) is the book published in 1992 by Hurwitz, D., Walking the Red Line: Israelis in Search of Justice for Palestine (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers). Pacifists should also read the book by Birkland, c., Unified in Hope: Arabs and Jews Talk About Peace (New York: Friendship Press, 1987) and Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1990), edited by Crow, R., et. al.
Rex Brynen brings us back to earth with "Buying Peace? A Critical Assessment of International Aid to the West Bank and Gaza," Journal of Palestine Studies (25:3, 1996, pp. 79-92). "There has also been concern over the potentially runaway expansion of the Palestinian Authority (PA) bureaucracy (particularly given the tendency of the PA to use public-sector employment as political rewards) and of financial accountability and transparency within the civil service" (p. 84). The Committees for Democratic Action published in 1994 Autonomy vs. Statehood: The Closure as a Means of Enforcing Autonomy. According to them, the division of the occupied territories in the Palestinian autonomous areas "is intended to prevent any viable claims for a future Palestinian state. No nation can exist without territorial continuity or a political center which unifies its territory" (p. 10). Khalidi, A., "The Palestinians: Current Dilemmas, Future Challenges," Journal of Palestine Studies (24:2, 1995, pp. 5-13), underscores a question that usually does not receive much attention: Palestinian internecine violence. This said, nobody expected Yitzhak Rabin was going to be assassinated by a Jew.
McDowall, D. is the author of a couple of books dealing with the recent history of Palestine and Israel: The Uprising and Beyond (London: Tauris, 1990) and The Palestinians: The Road to Nationhood (London: Minority Rights Publications, 1994). He notes that critics of the peace process regret the fact that the most important issues have been left out or postponed: "A total freeze on Jewish settlement activity; the subordination of settlers to the jurisdiction of the self-governing authority; explicit Israeli recognition of the West Bank and Gaza Strip as occupied, not merely 'disputed,' and the inclusion of Arab Jerusalem within the territorial jurisdiction of self-rule" (Palestinians, p. 120). In the article "A Year of Discovery," written for No. 26:2 (1997) of Journal of Palestine Studies (pp. 5-15), Fuad Mughrabi presents his impressions after a trip to the occupied territories: pessimism, social fragmentation, psychological distortion, underlying violence, and general uneasiness. Graham Usher is known for his chronicles about Palestinian life and politics, so his writings are useful to keep track of developments in the area: "Palestine: The Economic Fist in the Political Glove," Race & Class (36:1, 1994, pp. 73-79); "What Kind of a Nation? The Rise of Hamas in the Occupied Territories," Race & Class (37:2, 1995, pp. 65-80); "The Politics of Internal Security: The PA's New Intelligence Services, Journal of Palestine Studies (25:2, 1996, pp. 21-34), and, finally, Palestine in Crisis: The Struggle for Peace and Political Independence after Oslo (London: Pluto Press, 1995).
Books on the Intifada have been published everywhere. Some deal with specific aspects of Palestinian society. Ziad Abu Amr published in 1993 "Hamas: A Historical and Political Background," Journal of Palestine Studies (22:4, pp. 5-19). Ahmad, H. published in 1994 a study about the movement From Religious Salvation to Political Transformation: The Rise of Hamas in Palestinian Society (Jerusalem: PASSIA). Maria Holt focused on Palestinian women in Half the People: Women, History and the Palestinian Intifada (Jerusalem: PASSIA, 1992). Save the Children published in 1992 Growing Up with Conflict: Children and Development in the Occupied Territories (London: Save the Children Fund); and Ramsden, S. & Senker, C. edited in 1993 Learning the Hard Way: Palestinian Education in the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Israel (London: World University Service).
The following works complete this part: Beinin, J. & Stork, J. (eds.), Political Islam: Essays from the Middle East Report (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Flamhaft, Z., Israel on the Road to Peace: Accepting the Unacceptable (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996); Makovsky, D., Making Peace with the PLO (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996); Zureik, E., Palestinian Refugees and the Peace Process (Washington, D.c.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1996); Perlmutter, A, "The Israel-PLO Accord Is Dead," Foreign Affairs (May/June, 1995); Peters, J., Building Bridges: The Arab-Israeli Multilateral Talks (London: The Royal Institute for International Affairs, 1994).

Appendix: Biographies, Memoirs, Human Experiences

Begin, M., The Revolt: Story of the Irgun (New York: Henry Schuman, 1951); Herzl, T., Complete Diaries (New York: Herzl Press, 1960); Stephens, R., Nasser: A Political Biography (London: Penguin, 1971); Snow, P., Hussein (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1972); Ben-Gurion, D., My Talks with Arab Leaders (New York: Third Press, 1973); Asmar, F., To Be an Arab in Israel (London: Frances Pinter, 1975); Dayan, M., Histoire de ma vie (Paris, Fayard, 1976); Bar-Zohar, M., Ben-Gurion: A Biography (New York: Delacorte Press, 1978); Rabin, Y., The Rabin Memoirs (Boston: Little Brown, 1979); Reinharz, J., Schleifer, A, "The Life and Thought of Ezzedin al-Qassam," Islamic Quarterly (23:1, lS79, pp. 61-81); Soussan, M., Moi, juif arabe en Israel (Paris: Encre, 1985); Teveth, 5., Ben-Gurion: The Burning Ground 1886-1948 (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1987); Brinner, W. & Rischin, M. (eds.), Like All the Nations? The Life and Legacy of Judah L. Magnes (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987); Rigby, A, Living the Intifada (London: Zed Books, 1991); Jayyusi, S. (ed.), Anthology of Modern Palestinian Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992); Langfur, 5., Confessions from a Jericho Jail: What Happened When I Refused to Fight the Palestinians (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1992); Gorkin, M., Days of Honey, Days of Onion: The Story of a Palestinian Family in Israel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Reinharz, J., Chaim Weizman: The Making of a Zionist Leader and Chaim Weizman: The Making of a Statesman, 2 vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Slater, R., Rabin of Israel (London: Robson Books, 1993); Turki, F., Exile's Return: The Making of a Palestinian American (NeVI York: Free Press, 1994); Gowers, A & Walker, T., Arafat: A Biography, 2nd ed. (London: Vugin, 1994); Susser, A, On Both Banks of the Jordan: A Political Biography of Wasfi AI-Tal (Ilford: Frank Cass, 1994); Davidson, E., "Rabin Committed War Crimes," Challenge (27:34,1994); Kawar, A., Daughters of Palestine: Leading Women of the Palestinian National Movement (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996); Eban, A, An Autobiography (Tel Aviv: Steimatzky, 1997).