Since the early 1950s, Palestinians have been using the Jordanian
and Egyptian curricula and textbooks in West Bank and Gaza schools
respectively. These texts were subjected to complete censorship by
the Israeli military governor in charge of Palestinian education
from 1967 until 1993. During this period, whole books were banned
from schools; words and, sometimes, whole sections of textbooks
were deleted. A special agreement was signed in 1996 between the
Jordanian and the Palestinian ministries of education, whereby the
Palestinians would continue using the same Jordanian texts in
Palestinian schools until they are able and ready to produce their
own. At the start of the school year 2000/2001, the Palestinian
Ministry of Education completed 29 textbooks (see index) for grades
one and six only. The plan is to stagger the production of
textbooks, taking two grades at a time, so that the transition and
the introduction of the new texts will be done incrementally and
smoothly, and pupils will be prepared for it.
Composing textbooks is not an easy task. The new curriculum had to
be implemented under serious constraints, like closures of the
Palestinian National Authority (PNA) territories by the Israeli
army, lack of funds, a deadlocked peace process, and the renewed
outbreak of violence since September 2000. The Palestinians are
thus compelled to develop their own textbooks in the absence of a
national constitution and in a situation that can at best be
described as "unfavorable" and a future that can only be viewed as
grim and uncertain.
Despite the signing of agreements, Israeli practices continue to
impede the freedom of movement of Palestinians. Both pupils and
teachers meet with difficulties in trying to reach their schools
and in crossing checkpoints. The same applies to university
students and staff, leading to the extension of regular semesters,
delays in graduation and cancellation of summer schools. The
al-Aqsa Intifada has led to a really critical situation. Children
live in a constant state of terror as their homes are shelled by
tanks and helicopter gunships, and their schools are attacked by
soldiers and/ or settlers. Rubber bullets, live ammunition and tear
gas bombs are shot at pupils while they're in class or in the
schoolyard. The atrocities and violence they see around them or
hear about, like the killing of a 12-year-old boy in the arms of
his father in early October 2000, or the shelling of a school for
visually disabled children in al-Bireh, have traumatized
What I partially described above clearly shows that the ordinary
Palestinian has so far not experienced the fruits of a peace
agreement in his/ her daily life. This point is important because
it brings up the question, What do Palestinians teach their
children in the newly produced textbooks for grades one and six,
especially regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?
This paper will attempt to provide some answers to this question.
To this end, I have analyzed the new Palestinian textbooks - in
total 18 (9 for grade one and 9 for grade six). They are Arabic
language, religion (Muslim and Christian), history, geography,
civics and national education. Some of the textbooks come in two
parts, one for each semester. Textbooks of general sciences,
mathematics, technology and Arabic handwriting were surveyed but
not analyzed, because nothing in them relates to the
Palestinian-Israeli conflict/relationship. The total number of
textbooks that were not analyzed is 11 (five for grade one and six
for grade six).
In reading the findings of textbook analysis, the following factors
have to be taken into account: • The Palestinian-Israeli conflict has not been
completely nor satisfactorily resolved. This means that both
parties are not yet on full peaceful terms. They are in a situation
that can best be characterized as "between war and peace," although
in recent months the former has taken precedence over the latter.
Also, differences exist in the perception of peace between Israelis
and Palestinians. For Palestinians, real peace means a complete end
to the Israeli occupation, the establishment of an independent,
sovereign Palestinian state on the 1967 occupied land, with East
Jerusalem as its capital, as well as the full implementation of the
right of return for Palestinian refugees and/or their compensation
(UN Resolution 194). Israelis, on the other hand, perceive peace as
a no¬conflict/war situation 'and maintaining the status quo.
Many Israelis think that peace agreements ended the conflict, while
Palestinians think of them as a means to ending the conflict. • Textbooks have to reflect the realities of a society
- past, present and future. If textbooks alienate children from
their daily life, they will lose their legitimacy and the interest
of the children. They cannot ignore the feelings, hopes and
aspirations of a society. In conflict situations, textbooks have
always been used as a means of presenting the other side in a
negative perspective or stereotyping; legitimizing the national
ideology and de-legitimizing that of the other through
indoctrination; and upholding the claim of "self" as always right
and "they" as always wrong (Firer, 1999; Adwan, 1999). Thus, texts
in conflict areas reflect the "war culture" and not the "peace
culture." No one is to blame for this. It is worth noting that it
took the Germans, Polish and French more than ten years after the
end of the Second World War to start looking at and modifying their
textbooks. In the Palestinian-Israeli case, the conflict is still
ongoing, even escalating. This presents the education authorities
with real challenges and difficulties regarding what to write and
how to write it, and what context and direction to take. • Education and textbooks are not neutral or objective
and never have been or should be. They include the legitimate
knowledge of the peoples/ states, even in the most decentralized
systems of education. They are the means of relating to one's own
culture, identity and future. • The analysis of textbooks cannot be done efficiently
without a full understanding of the local language and culture.
Language is not only a set of symbols that can be translated, it is
actually the main cultural vehicle of any society, including its
values, attitudes, humor, norms, customs, etc. Speaking a language
that is not one's mother tongue does not fully qualify a person to
analyze textbook contents, for textual analysis is not only an
analysis of the explicit parts, but also includes the implicit
parts as well. This often leads to misunderstandings on the part of
non-native speakers. • Palestinians have been living under foreign rule for
so long that their identity is shattered, their culture is
oppressed and their economy is destroyed. They have been considered
strangers in their own land. Their textbooks have to challenge
this. They have to start building their national identity and
ethos, relating to their culture and environment not as strangers.
They have to teach their children their songs, customs, stories
and, at the same time, entertain hopes for a better future.
The Textbooks - Perception of Self and Others
The new Palestinian textbooks describe Palestinians through various
examples of daily activities. There is much emphasis on the way the
Palestinians live in their cities, towns and refugee camps, and on
their culture and heritage. The general description of Palestinians
as victims of the Zionist ideology and Israeli occupation is
clearly seen in the texts. Palestinians are also described as
religious people and texts portray the significant role religion
plays in their daily life.
At the same time, Palestinian pupils learn to look positively at
others. Negative stereotyping of Israelis or Jews is absent. Jews
are even presented in a favorable light. This is clear in the story
mentioned in the Islamic Education textbook for Grade Six, Part I,
pp. 82-83, which refers to an incident when Prophet Mohammad went
out of Mecca and met a tribe and he asked them, " Are you
affiliated with the tribe of the Jews?" They said, "Yes," and then
he asked them, if so, "Can I meet with you?" They said, "Yes." Then
they met, the text adds. This means, had they not been affiliated
with the Jewish tribes, he (the Prophet) would not have met them.
The same text mentions, "The Jews in the Peninsula have foreseen
that Prophet Mohammad would come soon, and they even waited for his
birth" (pp. 83-84). Similarly, in Islamic Education (for Grade Six,
Part 11, p. x), the Prophet Moses and other Jewish prophets are
presented in very positive ways. The pupils are asked to respect
"the heavenly religions" (Civic Education for Grade Six, p.
The History of Arabs and Muslims (Grade Six, p. 20) discusses the
spread of Judaism before Islam in Yathrib (al-Madinah), Khaibar and
Yemen. The text adds (p. 24) that both Muslims and Jews respected
the agreements and the conventions that they signed between
themselves, and encourages pupils "to respect the People of the
Book [Jews and Christians], their properties and religious
ceremonies" (p. 25).
Examples of assignments include the following: "Name religions that
existed in the Peninsula before Islam"(The History of Arabs and
Muslims, Grade Six, p. 22), or "What is the position of Islam
toward other believers and the followers of the heavenly
religions?" and the pupils are asked to relate cases or situations
in Islamic history that focus on tolerance and compassion for
others (National Education, Grade Six, p. 72). The same chapter
warns pupils of the danger to societies of extremism and fanaticism
(p. 64). Pupils are asked "to write a paper on evidence from the
Holy Books (the Koran, the New Testament and the Old Testament)
that call for tolerance and the rejection of extremism" (National
Education, Grade Six, p. 65). "Pupils are also enjoined to visit
holy sites of all religions." Chapter three in the textbook (pp.
64-82) discusses such human values as justice, freedom, equality,
honesty and the search for peace.
Tolerance, Peace and Pacifism
The Christian religious textbook (for Grade One, p. 15) stresses
tolerance and emphasizes the values of peace on earth and happiness
for all people (p. 33). Tolerance between Christians and Muslims in
Palestinian society is widely brought out in a discussion of
Palestinian society in the National Education textbook (Grade Six,
pp. 12-14) which states that "Palestinian society is characterized
by tolerance and brotherhood between Christians and Muslims" (p.
13), and pupils are requested "to implement this in their daily
practice." The text further asks the pupils to collect photos of
Islamic and Christian holy sites and to place them on a chart
(practical assignment, p. 14). An example of a peace-oriented
assignment is the following: "Olive trees are the symbol of peace,
please discuss this in the context of the Palestinian situation
now" (Our Beautiful Language, Grade Six, Part I, p. 82).
One of the educational goals mentioned in Chapter One of The
Principles of Human Geography (Grade Six, p. 3) is that "pupils are
encouraged to uphold good relations with neighboring countries."
The same text (pp. 41-42) explains to pupils that "killing men is a
heinous act and is an outcome of wars," in an attempt to warn
pupils of the devastating effects of wars and conflicts. The text
goes further and promotes tolerance and coexistence, supports
democracy and justice, the respect of diversity and the freedom of
expression. Pupils are encouraged in the use of peaceful means in
resolving disputes and disagreements and in shunning extremism.
Negotiations, dialogue and passive resistance are promoted
(National Education for Grade Six, pp. 64-78), and pupils are asked
to role-play how to peacefully resolve a problem or a conflict (p.
Our Beautiful Language textbook for Grade Six (Part 11, pp.
104-110) devotes a chapter to Ghandi and his pacifist approach to
liberation. Pupils are expected to "talk about passive
resistance"(p. 104) and "to give examples of non-violent resistance
of the Palestinian Intifada of 1987"(pp. 108, 114). Pupils are
asked "to collect some photos of Palestinian non-violent methods in
the 1987 Intifada" and to illustrate such methods by writing a
short biography of figures like Nelson Mandela"(p. 114). Dialogue
and negotiation as means of learning and dealing with the Other are
emphasized to a great degree in the National Education textbook
(Grade One, pp. 14-21); pupils are encouraged to "love and not to
hate"(Our Beautiful Language, Grade Six, Part 11, p. 111).
Jihad (Holy War) and Its Ethics
What does Jihad really mean? To fully comprehend the concept, I
read the Holy Koran and al-Hadeeth (Prophet Mohammad's words and
acts), as well as reference books that discuss Jihad, like the
comprehensive Fiqh al-Sunnah by al-Sayed Sabiq (1980). Jihad is a
holy war, but it is not an act of aggression (Sabiq, 1980). In
fact, it is a defensive war in which Muslims are ordered to
participate in accordance with certain conditions or stipulations:
if they are attacked, or if they are stripped of their land and
property. Muslims are also requested to fight oppression and
injustice and to defend Islam. This is very explicitly mentioned in
Surat al-Hujorat: Ayat 15 in the Holy Koran (Islamic Education,
Grade Six, Part I, p. 12). Muslims are to fight to defend the
freedom of worship for all people: Jews, Christians and Muslims. In
Islam only a defensive war is a legitimate war (Azzam, p.
Pupils are encouraged to love and defend their country, an act that
in Islam becomes a religious duty. This can be done by taking care
of the land, the environment, the people, and by cooperating with
others on the basis of equality, justice and mutual respect
(Islamic Education, Grade Six, Part I, p. 68). Jihad thus entails
undergoing hardships in various areas in life, like studying,
working, traveling and being away from one's family. Of course,
Jihad also means people are to defend themselves when they are
attacked, but in the process they have to be humane and not to
commit any war crimes or dehumanize others, nor should Muslims
fight for monetary gain or fame (Azzam, 1975, pp. 102-111 and
Sabiq, 1980, pp. 5-64).
Muslims are thus allowed to fight only to defend themselves and
should first exhaust all peaceful means to resolve a conflict.
Fighting then is not a Muslim's first option, and if the opponent
stops the fighting and calls for peace, a Muslim will have to heed
the call and end the fighting. Clearly, a misunderstanding of Jihad
has arisen among certain parties, whereby Jihad is misconstrued as
a belligerent and violent act. As mentioned earlier, therein lies
the danger of textbook analysis without a full comprehension and
knowledge of the indigenous language and culture.
Every nation bears great respect for its leaders and legendary
figures, especially those who have paid with their lives to
preserve and defend their national identity. They are the heroes of
the people and become part of their culture and collective
narrative. The Jewish people refer to the "pioneers," to members of
the Haganah, Etzel and Irgun as their heroes (Firer, 1999/2000).
Palestinians look at al-mujahideen (freedom fighters) and the
fidayeens (those who sacrifice their lives for the sake of their
land and people) as their heroes. In both Israeli and Palestinian
textbooks, the heroes of the other side are considered monsters,
terrorists and the "bad guys" (Firer, 1999/2000; Adwan, 2001). This
is how the other side, in general, and the heroes/leaders, in
particular, are presented in times of conHict/war, not only in
school textbooks, but also in other ways of socialization, like the
media, popular stories, drawings, cartoons, graffiti, etc. The
image of the enemy/other is always distorted in a culture of
Clearly, the general orientation of Palestinian textbooks is to
have pupils respect martyrs and to hold them in high regard. The
notion of martyrdom is greatly valued in Palestinian society.
Examples can be found throughout the textbooks: Those who are
killed fighting oppression and sacrifice their lives defending
Islam, their people and land are considered martyrs. Pupils are
thus asked to learn about martyrs, who they are, what they did
throughout Arab history. They are asked, for example, to "write a
letter about the feelings of a martyr's mother"(Our Beautiful
Language, Grade Six, p. 58). This theme is echoed in a poem by the
Palestinian poet Abdel Latif Aqel, entitled "The Poem of the
Intifada," which deals with martyrs and their mothers (p. 130). A
black and white photo of Izzeddine al-Qassam, who became a martyr
in 1935 while fighting the British, is also included as a way of
showing respect to martyrs (National Education, Grade Six, p.
The city of Jerusalem is considered holy by all parties involved in
the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. In all Palestinian textbooks
where Jerusalem (al¬Quds al-Sharif) is mentioned, reference is
specifically made to Arab East Jerusalem that was occupied by
Israel in the 1967 war. This is a fact clearly stated in all UN
resolutions. Israel, in violation of all international agreements
and conventions (the Fourth Geneva Convention and UN Security
Council resolutions 242 and 338), unilaterally annexed East
Jerusalem in 1980. All Israeli texts, on the other hand, refer to
the city as "Israel's united capital" in a clear denial of its
status as an occupied city, as well as the denial of the
Palestinians' rights in the city (Firer, 1999/2000).
Naturally, the importance of East Jerusalem to Palestinians
(Muslims and Christians) is stressed in the textbooks. Its holiness
for all religions is brought out. Pictures of Christian and Muslim
holy places are included in many textbooks. Pictures of the Dome of
the Rock, al-Aqsa Mosque and the Holy Sepulcher are used to
symbolize Jerusalem. The Western Wall is also called the al-Buraq
Wall where Prophet Mohammad tied his horse on his nightly journey
to Heaven from Mecca. In the texts, East Jerusalem is also
presented as the political capital of the future Palestinian state
(National Education, Grade Six, p. 29). The importance of Jerusalem
to Palestinians is not only religious or political; Jerusalem has
always been the economic, cultural, educational and health center
for Palestinians since the division of the city in 1948. It is
basically a symbol of their national identity (Ad wan, 2001).
Maps in Textbooks
The Palestinian-Israeli conflict is often characterized as a
protracted conflict, still far from being settled. This situation
spills over into the treatment of maps. In the new Palestinian
textbooks, the borders of the independent Palestinian state are
supposed to be based on what was stated in the November 15, 1988,
Declaration of Independence, Le., UN resolutions since 1947
(National Education for Grade Six, p. 32). However, borders have
not been settled yet in peace talks between Israelis and
Palestinians. The delineation of maps thus poses a problem. Some
maps included in Palestinian textbooks, for example, the National
Education (Grade Six, p. 42) point to the boundaries of the
Palestinian national territories as those of 1967. Other maps refer
to the Jewish settlements in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
within the clearly delineated lines of the 1967 occupied
territories (p. 15). In one exercise, pupils are asked to look at a
map and indicate the telephone area code numbers of all the
Palestinian districts (Our Beautiful Language, part 11, Grade Six,
It should be noted that despite its long history of producing
textbooks (since 1925), Israel still does not distinguish the
Palestinian areas in its school textbooks, or even mention the
Palestinians by name, except for the writings of the new historians
and some textbooks, especially by Daniel Bar-Tal or Eyal Naveh, but
almost never in other school textbooks.
In her report on Israeli textbooks, Dr. Ruth Firer from the Truman
Institute for the Advancement of Peace states that "there is no
mention of Palestinian towns or cities at all in Israeli textbooks,
and, whenever they are mentioned, they are very few compared to
Israeli towns and cities" (Firer, 1999/2000). The occupied
territories of Palestine are still called Judea and Samaria (their
biblical names, a terminology used by right-wingers) and all of
Jerusalem is depicted and referred to as one united city. The
borders of Israel run from the Mediterranean Sea (west) to the
River Jordan (east), without any indication to the occupied
territories. Only the names of the Jewish settlements in the
occupied territories are mentioned. The few Palestinian cities when
mentioned are referred to in their Hebraicized names, like "Shchem"
for "Nablus" (!bid).
Admittedly, the subject of maps is a sensitive issue and should be
tackled only after all borders and lines between the future
independent State of Palestine and the State of Israel are
demarcated within the context of negotiations between the two
sides. Any criticism of maps either in texts or atlases before this
materializes is premature, unreasonable and unfair.
The Love for Palestine
The new Palestinian textbooks address Palestinian life. They talk
about the Palestinian homeland, culture, values and norms,
economics, politics, history, religions, and their suffering as a
result of the Israeli occupation. They also talk about the
Palestinians' dreams of their homeland: "Palestine Is Green."
Discuss a farmer's family, the orange and the lemon groves, and the
water in Palestine is an example of a topic for an essay (Our
Beautiful Language, Grade One, Part I, pp. 71-102). Emphasis is
clearly placed on the Palestinians' identity when they are asked to
state "who they are," and "from where they come" and "what their
nationality is" (National Education, Grade One, Part I, pp. 8-10).
Pupils are called to take care of Palestine by defending it,
keeping it clean and beautiful, farming its land and cooperating
with each other (Islamic Education, Grade Six, Part I, p.
"My Home Is Palestine" is a full lesson where students are expected
to know the geography and civilization of Palestine. The lesson
includes natural scenery, and pictures of ancient religious
locations (National Text, Grade One, Part Il, pp. 47-52). Stress is
placed on the land of grandparents in order to maintain Palestinian
identity, heritage and the sense of belonging (p. 58). As an
assignment, pupils are asked to "discuss with each other the
importance of agriculture in Palestine" and to "ask their
grandmothers and grandfathers and write a report about the kind of
agriculture they used 50 years ago, the farming tools, the time of
harvesting and to compare it with those of today"(The Principles of
Demographic Geography, Grade Six, p. 69).
Dispossession, dispersion and life in the diaspora have
characterized Palestinian society throughout its history. In the
textbooks, a refugee camp is not considered the original place of
residence of the Palestinians, but a "temporary place [I] am forced
to live in, and all Palestinians wait for the moment that each
Palestinian would be able to return to his/her city or town from
which s/he was forced to flee." This is what the Islamic Education
textbook wants the pupils to understand from one of the lessons
(Grade Six, Part I, p. 69).
Our Beautiful Language (Grade Six, Part I) is full of examples
drawn from Palestinian life: homes, daily practices, the various
professions, photographs of holy as well as ancient sites, trees
(mostly olive, the symbol of peace in Palestine), the sources of
stones for buildings, the refugee issue and stories that emphasize
Palestinian identity and culture (pp. 27,31,39,45,47,58-59,
64-65,72,76-77,82,87,93,99,107,110,115,120-121,123, 130, 141, and
163). Also Part Il for the same grade includes other examples of
Palestinian life and heritage (pp. 17-18,
26,31,33,40,47,61,64,75,89-90,103,106,110,111, 114-115, and
The Civic Education textbook for Grade One focuses mainly on
developing the pupils' personal and national identities. Photos of
Palestinian passports as well as birth certificates are included as
signs of identity. Pupils are to learn their duties, their rights
and what constitutes good behavior. The Civic Education textbook
for Grade Six focuses on how pupils should relate to their
environment - natural and social. They also learn about cooperation
with others, democracy as a concept and practice, non-governmental
work, unions, societies and how to fight crime and uphold
Unit two of National Education, Grade Six, focuses on Palestinian
national organizations (pp. 20-22), the PLO (pp. 22-25), the
Palestinian National Council (pp. 26-28), the state (pp. 29-32) the
constitution (pp. 33-35), the three authorities (pp. 36-40), the
ministries (p. 40) administrative organizations (pp. 42-44), the
judiciary and courts in Palestine (pp. 45-48), economic
organizations, banks, factories, companies (pp. 48-56), societal
organizations (pp. 56-60), and health organizations (pp. 60-63).
The aim is to develop the pupils' understanding of their society,
its structure and their role in building their identity and
Unit three "I and the Others" (pp. 64-82) includes and stresses the
values of tolerance, freedom, justice and equality, to teach pupils
how to behave, how to treat others and to encourage them to be
productive and hard working.
The textbooks, on the other hand, talk about Jewish settlements and
their negative effects on Palestinians. Pupils are asked to "think
how to face this" (Islamic Education, Grade Six, Part 1, p. 68). In
the lesson on pollution, pupils are asked to "write a short report
on the effect of settlements in polluting the
environment"(Demographic Geography, Grade Six, p. 94), or "write a
short report on the negative results of building Jewish settlements
on Palestinian land" (National Education, Grade Six, pp.
Palestinian National Identity
The textbooks of any nation should be able to reflect the life of
its people ¬their collective narrative and memories. Pupils
have the right to read about their history, their culture, their
pain and suffering, their joys and happiness. Otherwise, textbooks
become irrelevant and alien to pupils who will consequently lose
all interest in them.
In the past, Palestinians had to use textbooks Gordanian and
Egyptian) that did not relate to them nor to their culture or
social and political aspirations. Presenting the reality of
Palestinian life at this juncture in history is not an easy task.
As mentioned earlier, the situation between Palestinians and
Israelis is described as "between conflict and peace" or "on the
road to peace." While the intention is to focus on peace and
coexistence, the daily life of Palestinians is still characterized
by suffering, closure and siege, house demolitions, land
confiscation, and now by shelling and bombing.
It is very problematic to write textbooks in this paradoxical
situation. How can Palestinians teach their children to love
Israelis, when the only things they see and experience (from
Israelis) are death, injuries, restrictions on movement, the
destruction of their homes, the razing of their land and uprooting
of trees, and starvation. For Palestinian children, Israelis are,
so far, seen only as soldiers, settlers, and bulldozer
I asked pupils from Grade Eight to express their perception of the
present situation between Israelis and Palestinians through
drawings. About 98 percent of the drawings depicted the killing and
maiming of Palestinians, the shelling of their homes by tanks,
helicopters and heavy machine guns, the destruction and blocking of
their roads, and the uprooting of their trees. Children cannot be
duped into believing or learning the opposite of what they see and
experience. It is too much and too soon to request the Palestinians
to produce textbooks so far removed from reality. Love cannot be
imposed on people; it has to blossom from within. Palestinians need
justifications to perceive Israelis in a more positive light. This
doesn't mean the Palestinians do not want to teach love and peace,
but peace has to become a concrete reality.
In National Education (Grade Six, p. 70), a picture shows two
clerics shaking hands - a Muslim and a Christian - to symbolize
tolerance. The question arises: "Why is there is no Jewish
religious figure with them?" In my opinion, it is a legitimate
question, but, at the same time, such a scene is rather untimely.
Palestinians still perceive Israelis as the main cause of their
suffering. The inclusion of a rabbi in the picture is too premature
to be accepted and envisioned by Palestinian pupils and society at
large. The pupils will react to it with pain and with suspicion,
since it is not their reality.
The situation on the ground has to improve dramatically and the
relationship between Israelis and Palestinians has to move away
from victimhood (victimizers/victims) (Dan Bar-On, 1999), for
far-reaching changes to be accepted. To try to change people's
thoughts and feelings without changing the reality is a form of
patronization, and it, too, can be perceived as a form of
oppression and manipulation.
Signing peace agreements is not enough to change attitudes and
values between old foes, but they are necessary to start the
process. Peace building needs grass-roots work and time and space
for people to mourn and heal. I fully agree with the first part of
John F. Kennedy's famous statement, "Peace does not lie in charters
and conventions alone. It lies in the hearts and minds of people."
But, I would add that, for peace to grow in the hearts and minds of
people, they first need to feel and live their humanity as free
men, to be able to discover themselves, to decide for themselves,
to regain their self¬respect, and to restore their shattered
Bibliography A. Analyzed textbooks:
Abu-Khashan, Abdel Karim, et al. (2000). Our Beautiful LAnguage,
parts I & 1I, Grade Six. Attalah, Hanna, Father, et al. (2000).
Christian Religious Education, Grade Six.
Attalah, Mahmoud, et al. (2000). The Principles of Demographic
Geography, Grade Six. ----- (2000). The History of Arabs and
Muslims, Grade Six.
Doufish, Khalil, et al. (2000). National Education, parts I &
1I, Grade One. EI-Arouri, Farid, et al. (2000). Civic Education,
parts I & 1I, Grade Six.
EI-Hayek, Nazih, Father, et al. (2000). Christian Religious
Education, Grade One. Kamal, Zahira, et al. (2000). Civic
Education, parts I & 1I, Grade One.
Musalam, Omar, et al. (2000). Our Beautiful LAnguage, parts I &
1I, Grade One. Mustafa, T. Harnzah, et al. (2000). Islamic
Education, parts I & Il, Grade Six. Shakarnah, A. Abdallah, et
al. (2000). Islamic Education, parts I & Il, Grade One.
B. Textbooks surveyed but not analyzed:
Abu-Khashan, Abdel Karim (2000). Arabic Handwriting, Grade Six.
Hamad, Ali Khalil, et al. (2000). Mathematics, parts I & Il,
Grade One. Mass'ad, Fateen, et al. (2000). Mathematics, parts I
& Il, Grade Six. Musalam, Omar, et al. (2000). Arabic
Handwriting, Grade One.
Sa'ad, Mahmoud Hani, et al. (2000). General Science, parts 1&
1I, Grade One. Saia'rah, Ahmad, et al. (2000). Technology, Grade
Sharia, Ziad Mustafa, et al. (2000). General Science, parts I &
Il, Grade Six.
3. General references:
Azzam, Abdel Rahman (1975). The Etemal Message: A Textbook for
Grade Twelve. The West Bank Administration: The Office of
Adwan, Sami (2001). The Status of Jerusalem in Palestinian Texts.
Jerusalem: The Palestinian Consultancy Group (in press).
---- (199912000). "Analysis of the Palestinian Narrative of the
Israeli/Palestinian Conflict in Palestinian History and Civic
Education Texts: The Palestinian Refugee Problem and the 1967 War."
Braunschweig, Germany: Georg Eckert Institut.
Bar-On, Dan &d Adwan, Sami (1999).The Role of Palestinian and
Israeli NGOs in Peace Building. Beit Jala: PRIME.
Firer, Ruth (1999 /20(0). "Analysis of the Israeli Narrative of the
Israeli/Palestinian Conflict in Israeli History and Civic Education
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