by Sami Adwan
Since the early 1950s, Palestinians have been using the Jordanian and Egyptian curricula and textbooks in West Bank and Gaza schools respectively. These texts were subjected to complete censorship by the Israeli military governor in charge of Palestinian education from 1967 until 1993. During this period, whole books were banned from schools; words and, sometimes, whole sections of textbooks were deleted. A special agreement was signed in 1996 between the Jordanian and the Palestinian ministries of education, whereby the Palestinians would continue using the same Jordanian texts in Palestinian schools until they are able and ready to produce their own. At the start of the school year 2000/2001, the Palestinian Ministry of Education completed 29 textbooks (see index) for grades one and six only. The plan is to stagger the production of textbooks, taking two grades at a time, so that the transition and the introduction of the new texts will be done incrementally and smoothly, and pupils will be prepared for it.
Composing textbooks is not an easy task. The new curriculum had to be implemented under serious constraints, like closures of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) territories by the Israeli army, lack of funds, a deadlocked peace process, and the renewed outbreak of violence since September 2000. The Palestinians are thus compelled to develop their own textbooks in the absence of a national constitution and in a situation that can at best be described as "unfavorable" and a future that can only be viewed as grim and uncertain.
Despite the signing of agreements, Israeli practices continue to impede the freedom of movement of Palestinians. Both pupils and teachers meet with difficulties in trying to reach their schools and in crossing checkpoints. The same applies to university students and staff, leading to the extension of regular semesters, delays in graduation and cancellation of summer schools. The al-Aqsa Intifada has led to a really critical situation. Children live in a constant state of terror as their homes are shelled by tanks and helicopter gunships, and their schools are attacked by soldiers and/ or settlers. Rubber bullets, live ammunition and tear gas bombs are shot at pupils while they‘re in class or in the schoolyard. The atrocities and violence they see around them or hear about, like the killing of a 12-year-old boy in the arms of his father in early October 2000, or the shelling of a school for visually disabled children in al-Bireh, have traumatized them.
What I partially described above clearly shows that the ordinary Palestinian has so far not experienced the fruits of a peace agreement in his/ her daily life. This point is important because it brings up the question, What do Palestinians teach their children in the newly produced textbooks for grades one and six, especially regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?
This paper will attempt to provide some answers to this question. To this end, I have analyzed the new Palestinian textbooks - in total 18 (9 for grade one and 9 for grade six). They are Arabic language, religion (Muslim and Christian), history, geography, civics and national education. Some of the textbooks come in two parts, one for each semester. Textbooks of general sciences, mathematics, technology and Arabic handwriting were surveyed but not analyzed, because nothing in them relates to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict/relationship. The total number of textbooks that were not analyzed is 11 (five for grade one and six for grade six).
In reading the findings of textbook analysis, the following factors have to be taken into account:
The Palestinian-Israeli conflict has not been completely nor satisfactorily resolved. This means that both parties are not yet on full peaceful terms. They are in a situation that can best be characterized as "between war and peace," although in recent months the former has taken precedence over the latter. Also, differences exist in the perception of peace between Israelis and Palestinians. For Palestinians, real peace means a complete end to the Israeli occupation, the establishment of an independent, sovereign Palestinian state on the 1967 occupied land, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as the full implementation of the right of return for Palestinian refugees and/or their compensation (UN Resolution 194). Israelis, on the other hand, perceive peace as a no¬conflict/war situation ‘and maintaining the status quo. Many Israelis think that peace agreements ended the conflict, while Palestinians think of them as a means to ending the conflict.
Textbooks have to reflect the realities of a society - past, present and future. If textbooks alienate children from their daily life, they will lose their legitimacy and the interest of the children. They cannot ignore the feelings, hopes and aspirations of a society. In conflict situations, textbooks have always been used as a means of presenting the other side in a negative perspective or stereotyping; legitimizing the national ideology and de-legitimizing that of the other through indoctrination; and upholding the claim of "self" as always right and "they" as always wrong (Firer, 1999; Adwan, 1999). Thus, texts in conflict areas reflect the "war culture" and not the "peace culture." No one is to blame for this. It is worth noting that it took the Germans, Polish and French more than ten years after the end of the Second World War to start looking at and modifying their textbooks. In the Palestinian-Israeli case, the conflict is still ongoing, even escalating. This presents the education authorities with real challenges and difficulties regarding what to write and how to write it, and what context and direction to take.
Education and textbooks are not neutral or objective and never have been or should be. They include the legitimate knowledge of the peoples/ states, even in the most decentralized systems of education. They are the means of relating to one‘s own culture, identity and future.
The analysis of textbooks cannot be done efficiently without a full understanding of the local language and culture. Language is not only a set of symbols that can be translated, it is actually the main cultural vehicle of any society, including its values, attitudes, humor, norms, customs, etc. Speaking a language that is not one‘s mother tongue does not fully qualify a person to analyze textbook contents, for textual analysis is not only an analysis of the explicit parts, but also includes the implicit parts as well. This often leads to misunderstandings on the part of non-native speakers.
Palestinians have been living under foreign rule for so long that their identity is shattered, their culture is oppressed and their economy is destroyed. They have been considered strangers in their own land. Their textbooks have to challenge this. They have to start building their national identity and ethos, relating to their culture and environment not as strangers. They have to teach their children their songs, customs, stories and, at the same time, entertain hopes for a better future.
The Textbooks - Perception of Self and Others
The new Palestinian textbooks describe Palestinians through various examples of daily activities. There is much emphasis on the way the Palestinians live in their cities, towns and refugee camps, and on their culture and heritage. The general description of Palestinians as victims of the Zionist ideology and Israeli occupation is clearly seen in the texts. Palestinians are also described as religious people and texts portray the significant role religion plays in their daily life.
At the same time, Palestinian pupils learn to look positively at others. Negative stereotyping of Israelis or Jews is absent. Jews are even presented in a favorable light. This is clear in the story mentioned in the Islamic Education textbook for Grade Six, Part I, pp. 82-83, which refers to an incident when Prophet Mohammad went out of Mecca and met a tribe and he asked them, " Are you affiliated with the tribe of the Jews?" They said, "Yes," and then he asked them, if so, "Can I meet with you?" They said, "Yes." Then they met, the text adds. This means, had they not been affiliated with the Jewish tribes, he (the Prophet) would not have met them. The same text mentions, "The Jews in the Peninsula have foreseen that Prophet Mohammad would come soon, and they even waited for his birth" (pp. 83-84). Similarly, in Islamic Education (for Grade Six, Part 11, p. x), the Prophet Moses and other Jewish prophets are presented in very positive ways. The pupils are asked to respect "the heavenly religions" (Civic Education for Grade Six, p. 68).
The History of Arabs and Muslims (Grade Six, p. 20) discusses the spread of Judaism before Islam in Yathrib (al-Madinah), Khaibar and Yemen. The text adds (p. 24) that both Muslims and Jews respected the agreements and the conventions that they signed between themselves, and encourages pupils "to respect the People of the Book [Jews and Christians], their properties and religious ceremonies" (p. 25).
Examples of assignments include the following: "Name religions that existed in the Peninsula before Islam"(The History of Arabs and Muslims, Grade Six, p. 22), or "What is the position of Islam toward other believers and the followers of the heavenly religions?" and the pupils are asked to relate cases or situations in Islamic history that focus on tolerance and compassion for others (National Education, Grade Six, p. 72). The same chapter warns pupils of the danger to societies of extremism and fanaticism (p. 64). Pupils are asked "to write a paper on evidence from the Holy Books (the Koran, the New Testament and the Old Testament) that call for tolerance and the rejection of extremism" (National Education, Grade Six, p. 65). "Pupils are also enjoined to visit holy sites of all religions." Chapter three in the textbook (pp. 64-82) discusses such human values as justice, freedom, equality, honesty and the search for peace.
Tolerance, Peace and Pacifism
The Christian religious textbook (for Grade One, p. 15) stresses tolerance and emphasizes the values of peace on earth and happiness for all people (p. 33). Tolerance between Christians and Muslims in Palestinian society is widely brought out in a discussion of Palestinian society in the National Education textbook (Grade Six, pp. 12-14) which states that "Palestinian society is characterized by tolerance and brotherhood between Christians and Muslims" (p. 13), and pupils are requested "to implement this in their daily practice." The text further asks the pupils to collect photos of Islamic and Christian holy sites and to place them on a chart (practical assignment, p. 14). An example of a peace-oriented assignment is the following: "Olive trees are the symbol of peace, please discuss this in the context of the Palestinian situation now" (Our Beautiful Language, Grade Six, Part I, p. 82).
One of the educational goals mentioned in Chapter One of The Principles of Human Geography (Grade Six, p. 3) is that "pupils are encouraged to uphold good relations with neighboring countries." The same text (pp. 41-42) explains to pupils that "killing men is a heinous act and is an outcome of wars," in an attempt to warn pupils of the devastating effects of wars and conflicts. The text goes further and promotes tolerance and coexistence, supports democracy and justice, the respect of diversity and the freedom of expression. Pupils are encouraged in the use of peaceful means in resolving disputes and disagreements and in shunning extremism. Negotiations, dialogue and passive resistance are promoted (National Education for Grade Six, pp. 64-78), and pupils are asked to role-play how to peacefully resolve a problem or a conflict (p. 78).
Our Beautiful Language textbook for Grade Six (Part 11, pp. 104-110) devotes a chapter to Ghandi and his pacifist approach to liberation. Pupils are expected to "talk about passive resistance"(p. 104) and "to give examples of non-violent resistance of the Palestinian Intifada of 1987"(pp. 108, 114). Pupils are asked "to collect some photos of Palestinian non-violent methods in the 1987 Intifada" and to illustrate such methods by writing a short biography of figures like Nelson Mandela"(p. 114). Dialogue and negotiation as means of learning and dealing with the Other are emphasized to a great degree in the National Education textbook (Grade One, pp. 14-21); pupils are encouraged to "love and not to hate"(Our Beautiful Language, Grade Six, Part 11, p. 111).
Jihad (Holy War) and Its Ethics
What does Jihad really mean? To fully comprehend the concept, I read the Holy Koran and al-Hadeeth (Prophet Mohammad‘s words and acts), as well as reference books that discuss Jihad, like the comprehensive Fiqh al-Sunnah by al-Sayed Sabiq (1980). Jihad is a holy war, but it is not an act of aggression (Sabiq, 1980). In fact, it is a defensive war in which Muslims are ordered to participate in accordance with certain conditions or stipulations: if they are attacked, or if they are stripped of their land and property. Muslims are also requested to fight oppression and injustice and to defend Islam. This is very explicitly mentioned in Surat al-Hujorat: Ayat 15 in the Holy Koran (Islamic Education, Grade Six, Part I, p. 12). Muslims are to fight to defend the freedom of worship for all people: Jews, Christians and Muslims. In Islam only a defensive war is a legitimate war (Azzam, p. 103-104).
Pupils are encouraged to love and defend their country, an act that in Islam becomes a religious duty. This can be done by taking care of the land, the environment, the people, and by cooperating with others on the basis of equality, justice and mutual respect (Islamic Education, Grade Six, Part I, p. 68). Jihad thus entails undergoing hardships in various areas in life, like studying, working, traveling and being away from one‘s family. Of course, Jihad also means people are to defend themselves when they are attacked, but in the process they have to be humane and not to commit any war crimes or dehumanize others, nor should Muslims fight for monetary gain or fame (Azzam, 1975, pp. 102-111 and Sabiq, 1980, pp. 5-64).
Muslims are thus allowed to fight only to defend themselves and should first exhaust all peaceful means to resolve a conflict. Fighting then is not a Muslim‘s first option, and if the opponent stops the fighting and calls for peace, a Muslim will have to heed the call and end the fighting. Clearly, a misunderstanding of Jihad has arisen among certain parties, whereby Jihad is misconstrued as a belligerent and violent act. As mentioned earlier, therein lies the danger of textbook analysis without a full comprehension and knowledge of the indigenous language and culture.
Every nation bears great respect for its leaders and legendary figures, especially those who have paid with their lives to preserve and defend their national identity. They are the heroes of the people and become part of their culture and collective narrative. The Jewish people refer to the "pioneers," to members of the Haganah, Etzel and Irgun as their heroes (Firer, 1999/2000). Palestinians look at al-mujahideen (freedom fighters) and the fidayeens (those who sacrifice their lives for the sake of their land and people) as their heroes. In both Israeli and Palestinian textbooks, the heroes of the other side are considered monsters, terrorists and the "bad guys" (Firer, 1999/2000; Adwan, 2001). This is how the other side, in general, and the heroes/leaders, in particular, are presented in times of conHict/war, not only in school textbooks, but also in other ways of socialization, like the media, popular stories, drawings, cartoons, graffiti, etc. The image of the enemy/other is always distorted in a culture of war.
Clearly, the general orientation of Palestinian textbooks is to have pupils respect martyrs and to hold them in high regard. The notion of martyrdom is greatly valued in Palestinian society. Examples can be found throughout the textbooks: Those who are killed fighting oppression and sacrifice their lives defending Islam, their people and land are considered martyrs. Pupils are thus asked to learn about martyrs, who they are, what they did throughout Arab history. They are asked, for example, to "write a letter about the feelings of a martyr‘s mother"(Our Beautiful Language, Grade Six, p. 58). This theme is echoed in a poem by the Palestinian poet Abdel Latif Aqel, entitled "The Poem of the Intifada," which deals with martyrs and their mothers (p. 130). A black and white photo of Izzeddine al-Qassam, who became a martyr in 1935 while fighting the British, is also included as a way of showing respect to martyrs (National Education, Grade Six, p. 15).
The city of Jerusalem is considered holy by all parties involved in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. In all Palestinian textbooks where Jerusalem (al¬Quds al-Sharif) is mentioned, reference is specifically made to Arab East Jerusalem that was occupied by Israel in the 1967 war. This is a fact clearly stated in all UN resolutions. Israel, in violation of all international agreements and conventions (the Fourth Geneva Convention and UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338), unilaterally annexed East Jerusalem in 1980. All Israeli texts, on the other hand, refer to the city as "Israel‘s united capital" in a clear denial of its status as an occupied city, as well as the denial of the Palestinians‘ rights in the city (Firer, 1999/2000).
Naturally, the importance of East Jerusalem to Palestinians (Muslims and Christians) is stressed in the textbooks. Its holiness for all religions is brought out. Pictures of Christian and Muslim holy places are included in many textbooks. Pictures of the Dome of the Rock, al-Aqsa Mosque and the Holy Sepulcher are used to symbolize Jerusalem. The Western Wall is also called the al-Buraq Wall where Prophet Mohammad tied his horse on his nightly journey to Heaven from Mecca. In the texts, East Jerusalem is also presented as the political capital of the future Palestinian state (National Education, Grade Six, p. 29). The importance of Jerusalem to Palestinians is not only religious or political; Jerusalem has always been the economic, cultural, educational and health center for Palestinians since the division of the city in 1948. It is basically a symbol of their national identity (Ad wan, 2001).
Maps in Textbooks
The Palestinian-Israeli conflict is often characterized as a protracted conflict, still far from being settled. This situation spills over into the treatment of maps. In the new Palestinian textbooks, the borders of the independent Palestinian state are supposed to be based on what was stated in the November 15, 1988, Declaration of Independence, Le., UN resolutions since 1947 (National Education for Grade Six, p. 32). However, borders have not been settled yet in peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians. The delineation of maps thus poses a problem. Some maps included in Palestinian textbooks, for example, the National Education (Grade Six, p. 42) point to the boundaries of the Palestinian national territories as those of 1967. Other maps refer to the Jewish settlements in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip within the clearly delineated lines of the 1967 occupied territories (p. 15). In one exercise, pupils are asked to look at a map and indicate the telephone area code numbers of all the Palestinian districts (Our Beautiful Language, part 11, Grade Six, p. 27).
It should be noted that despite its long history of producing textbooks (since 1925), Israel still does not distinguish the Palestinian areas in its school textbooks, or even mention the Palestinians by name, except for the writings of the new historians and some textbooks, especially by Daniel Bar-Tal or Eyal Naveh, but almost never in other school textbooks.
In her report on Israeli textbooks, Dr. Ruth Firer from the Truman Institute for the Advancement of Peace states that "there is no mention of Palestinian towns or cities at all in Israeli textbooks, and, whenever they are mentioned, they are very few compared to Israeli towns and cities" (Firer, 1999/2000). The occupied territories of Palestine are still called Judea and Samaria (their biblical names, a terminology used by right-wingers) and all of Jerusalem is depicted and referred to as one united city. The borders of Israel run from the Mediterranean Sea (west) to the River Jordan (east), without any indication to the occupied territories. Only the names of the Jewish settlements in the occupied territories are mentioned. The few Palestinian cities when mentioned are referred to in their Hebraicized names, like "Shchem" for "Nablus" (!bid).
Admittedly, the subject of maps is a sensitive issue and should be tackled only after all borders and lines between the future independent State of Palestine and the State of Israel are demarcated within the context of negotiations between the two sides. Any criticism of maps either in texts or atlases before this materializes is premature, unreasonable and unfair.
The Love for Palestine
The new Palestinian textbooks address Palestinian life. They talk about the Palestinian homeland, culture, values and norms, economics, politics, history, religions, and their suffering as a result of the Israeli occupation. They also talk about the Palestinians‘ dreams of their homeland: "Palestine Is Green." Discuss a farmer‘s family, the orange and the lemon groves, and the water in Palestine is an example of a topic for an essay (Our Beautiful Language, Grade One, Part I, pp. 71-102). Emphasis is clearly placed on the Palestinians‘ identity when they are asked to state "who they are," and "from where they come" and "what their nationality is" (National Education, Grade One, Part I, pp. 8-10). Pupils are called to take care of Palestine by defending it, keeping it clean and beautiful, farming its land and cooperating with each other (Islamic Education, Grade Six, Part I, p. 68).
"My Home Is Palestine" is a full lesson where students are expected to know the geography and civilization of Palestine. The lesson includes natural scenery, and pictures of ancient religious locations (National Text, Grade One, Part Il, pp. 47-52). Stress is placed on the land of grandparents in order to maintain Palestinian identity, heritage and the sense of belonging (p. 58). As an assignment, pupils are asked to "discuss with each other the importance of agriculture in Palestine" and to "ask their grandmothers and grandfathers and write a report about the kind of agriculture they used 50 years ago, the farming tools, the time of harvesting and to compare it with those of today"(The Principles of Demographic Geography, Grade Six, p. 69).
Dispossession, dispersion and life in the diaspora have characterized Palestinian society throughout its history. In the textbooks, a refugee camp is not considered the original place of residence of the Palestinians, but a "temporary place [I] am forced to live in, and all Palestinians wait for the moment that each Palestinian would be able to return to his/her city or town from which s/he was forced to flee." This is what the Islamic Education textbook wants the pupils to understand from one of the lessons (Grade Six, Part I, p. 69).
Our Beautiful Language (Grade Six, Part I) is full of examples drawn from Palestinian life: homes, daily practices, the various professions, photographs of holy as well as ancient sites, trees (mostly olive, the symbol of peace in Palestine), the sources of stones for buildings, the refugee issue and stories that emphasize Palestinian identity and culture (pp. 27,31,39,45,47,58-59, 64-65,72,76-77,82,87,93,99,107,110,115,120-121,123, 130, 141, and 163). Also Part Il for the same grade includes other examples of Palestinian life and heritage (pp. 17-18, 26,31,33,40,47,61,64,75,89-90,103,106,110,111, 114-115, and 131).
The Civic Education textbook for Grade One focuses mainly on developing the pupils‘ personal and national identities. Photos of Palestinian passports as well as birth certificates are included as signs of identity. Pupils are to learn their duties, their rights and what constitutes good behavior. The Civic Education textbook for Grade Six focuses on how pupils should relate to their environment - natural and social. They also learn about cooperation with others, democracy as a concept and practice, non-governmental work, unions, societies and how to fight crime and uphold teamwork.
Unit two of National Education, Grade Six, focuses on Palestinian national organizations (pp. 20-22), the PLO (pp. 22-25), the Palestinian National Council (pp. 26-28), the state (pp. 29-32) the constitution (pp. 33-35), the three authorities (pp. 36-40), the ministries (p. 40) administrative organizations (pp. 42-44), the judiciary and courts in Palestine (pp. 45-48), economic organizations, banks, factories, companies (pp. 48-56), societal organizations (pp. 56-60), and health organizations (pp. 60-63). The aim is to develop the pupils‘ understanding of their society, its structure and their role in building their identity and ethos.
Unit three "I and the Others" (pp. 64-82) includes and stresses the values of tolerance, freedom, justice and equality, to teach pupils how to behave, how to treat others and to encourage them to be productive and hard working.
The textbooks, on the other hand, talk about Jewish settlements and their negative effects on Palestinians. Pupils are asked to "think how to face this" (Islamic Education, Grade Six, Part 1, p. 68). In the lesson on pollution, pupils are asked to "write a short report on the effect of settlements in polluting the environment"(Demographic Geography, Grade Six, p. 94), or "write a short report on the negative results of building Jewish settlements on Palestinian land" (National Education, Grade Six, pp. 18-19).
Palestinian National Identity
The textbooks of any nation should be able to reflect the life of its people ¬their collective narrative and memories. Pupils have the right to read about their history, their culture, their pain and suffering, their joys and happiness. Otherwise, textbooks become irrelevant and alien to pupils who will consequently lose all interest in them.
In the past, Palestinians had to use textbooks Gordanian and Egyptian) that did not relate to them nor to their culture or social and political aspirations. Presenting the reality of Palestinian life at this juncture in history is not an easy task. As mentioned earlier, the situation between Palestinians and Israelis is described as "between conflict and peace" or "on the road to peace." While the intention is to focus on peace and coexistence, the daily life of Palestinians is still characterized by suffering, closure and siege, house demolitions, land confiscation, and now by shelling and bombing.
It is very problematic to write textbooks in this paradoxical situation. How can Palestinians teach their children to love Israelis, when the only things they see and experience (from Israelis) are death, injuries, restrictions on movement, the destruction of their homes, the razing of their land and uprooting of trees, and starvation. For Palestinian children, Israelis are, so far, seen only as soldiers, settlers, and bulldozer operators.
I asked pupils from Grade Eight to express their perception of the present situation between Israelis and Palestinians through drawings. About 98 percent of the drawings depicted the killing and maiming of Palestinians, the shelling of their homes by tanks, helicopters and heavy machine guns, the destruction and blocking of their roads, and the uprooting of their trees. Children cannot be duped into believing or learning the opposite of what they see and experience. It is too much and too soon to request the Palestinians to produce textbooks so far removed from reality. Love cannot be imposed on people; it has to blossom from within. Palestinians need justifications to perceive Israelis in a more positive light. This doesn‘t mean the Palestinians do not want to teach love and peace, but peace has to become a concrete reality.
In National Education (Grade Six, p. 70), a picture shows two clerics shaking hands - a Muslim and a Christian - to symbolize tolerance. The question arises: "Why is there is no Jewish religious figure with them?" In my opinion, it is a legitimate question, but, at the same time, such a scene is rather untimely. Palestinians still perceive Israelis as the main cause of their suffering. The inclusion of a rabbi in the picture is too premature to be accepted and envisioned by Palestinian pupils and society at large. The pupils will react to it with pain and with suspicion, since it is not their reality.
The situation on the ground has to improve dramatically and the relationship between Israelis and Palestinians has to move away from victimhood (victimizers/victims) (Dan Bar-On, 1999), for far-reaching changes to be accepted. To try to change people‘s thoughts and feelings without changing the reality is a form of patronization, and it, too, can be perceived as a form of oppression and manipulation.
Signing peace agreements is not enough to change attitudes and values between old foes, but they are necessary to start the process. Peace building needs grass-roots work and time and space for people to mourn and heal. I fully agree with the first part of John F. Kennedy‘s famous statement, "Peace does not lie in charters and conventions alone. It lies in the hearts and minds of people." But, I would add that, for peace to grow in the hearts and minds of people, they first need to feel and live their humanity as free men, to be able to discover themselves, to decide for themselves, to regain their self¬respect, and to restore their shattered identity.
A. Analyzed textbooks:
Abu-Khashan, Abdel Karim, et al. (2000). Our Beautiful LAnguage, parts I & 1I, Grade Six. Attalah, Hanna, Father, et al. (2000). Christian Religious Education, Grade Six.
Attalah, Mahmoud, et al. (2000). The Principles of Demographic Geography, Grade Six. ----- (2000). The History of Arabs and Muslims, Grade Six.
Doufish, Khalil, et al. (2000). National Education, parts I & 1I, Grade One. EI-Arouri, Farid, et al. (2000). Civic Education, parts I & 1I, Grade Six.
EI-Hayek, Nazih, Father, et al. (2000). Christian Religious Education, Grade One. Kamal, Zahira, et al. (2000). Civic Education, parts I & 1I, Grade One.
Musalam, Omar, et al. (2000). Our Beautiful LAnguage, parts I & 1I, Grade One. Mustafa, T. Harnzah, et al. (2000). Islamic Education, parts I & Il, Grade Six. Shakarnah, A. Abdallah, et al. (2000). Islamic Education, parts I & Il, Grade One.
B. Textbooks surveyed but not analyzed:
Abu-Khashan, Abdel Karim (2000). Arabic Handwriting, Grade Six. Hamad, Ali Khalil, et al. (2000). Mathematics, parts I & Il, Grade One. Mass‘ad, Fateen, et al. (2000). Mathematics, parts I & Il, Grade Six. Musalam, Omar, et al. (2000). Arabic Handwriting, Grade One.
Sa‘ad, Mahmoud Hani, et al. (2000). General Science, parts 1& 1I, Grade One. Saia‘rah, Ahmad, et al. (2000). Technology, Grade Six.
Sharia, Ziad Mustafa, et al. (2000). General Science, parts I & Il, Grade Six.
3. General references:
Azzam, Abdel Rahman (1975). The Etemal Message: A Textbook for Grade Twelve. The West Bank Administration: The Office of Education.
Adwan, Sami (2001). The Status of Jerusalem in Palestinian Texts. Jerusalem: The Palestinian Consultancy Group (in press).
---- (199912000). "Analysis of the Palestinian Narrative of the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict in Palestinian History and Civic Education Texts: The Palestinian Refugee Problem and the 1967 War." Braunschweig, Germany: Georg Eckert Institut.
Bar-On, Dan &d Adwan, Sami (1999).The Role of Palestinian and Israeli NGOs in Peace Building. Beit Jala: PRIME.
Firer, Ruth (1999 /20(0). "Analysis of the Israeli Narrative of the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict in Israeli History and Civic Education Texts: The Palestinian Refugee Problem and the 1967 War." Braunschweig, Germany: Georg Eckert Institut.
Sabiq, al-Sayed (1980). Fiqeh al-Sunnah (Arabic), part Ill. Beirut: Dar al-Fiker. The Holy Koran.
This article is a shorter version of a paper that will be published in the faII of 2001 as part of a comprehensive study by Georg Eckert Institut, Brazmschweig, Gennany.